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تجارة الرهائن إذ تفتح شهية الخاطفين

خطف الرهائن والإتجار بهم لقاء فدية مالية، أو لتحقيق مطالب أخرى، ليس بظاهرة جديدة. تورطت فيه أطراف كثيرة حول العالم، لكن حديث هذه السطور محصور بالبلدان العربية والإسلامية حيث مارست جماعات عدة سياسة خطف الرهائن، بدءاً بـ «حزب الله» اللبناني، مروراً بتنظيم «القاعدة» وفروعه، وانتهاء بـ «داعش».

كان «حزب الله» مبتكر سياسة الإتجار بالرهائن الغربيين في ثمانينات القرن الماضي في لبنان، لكن مطالبه كانت سياسية إلى حد كبير ويرتبط جزء منها بإيران والموقف الغربي منها. أما مكتشف مردودها المالي فقد كان الإسلامي الجزائري عبدالرزاق «البارا» الذي «اهتدى» في طريقه بالصحراء الجزائرية عام 2003 على قافلة سيّاح أوروبيين (معظمهم ألمان) فخطفتهم جماعته إلى مالي حيث أفرج عنهم بعد الحصول على فدية ضخمة. وعلى رغم أن السلطات الجزائرية تمكنت من استرداده بعدما «اشترته» الاستخبارات الليبية من جماعة تشادية أسرته في جبال تبستي، إلا أن «سر» نجاح تجارته كان قد انكشف. فسارت على خطاه «إمارة الصحراء» بقيادة مختار بلمختار، والتي جنت عشرات الملايين من الدولارات من إتجارها بالرهائن في بلدان الساحل الأفريقي.

وفي الواقع، انتشر سر هذه التجارة الرابحة في أوساط العديد من الجماعات الموصوفة بـ «الجهادية»، من «بوكو حرام» في نيجيريا، إلى «أبو سياف» في الفيليبين، إلى «القاعدة» بفروعه المختلفة في خراسان والعراق واليمن، مروراً بـ «النصرة» في سورية، وانتهاء بـ «داعش» على أراضي «خلافته». وفي حين أُفرج عن الكثير من الرهائن لقاء فدية مالية أو مقابل مبادلتهم بآخرين، إلا أن عدداً آخر منهم كان مصيره الإعدام بطرق مقززة أمام عدسات الكاميرا، كما حصل مع رهائن أميركيين وبريطانيين ومن جنسيات أخرى في سورية والعراق.

ولكن، قبل الوصول إلى مأساة الرهائن لدى «داعش»، كانت التجارة بهؤلاء غالباً ما تنتهي نهاية سعيدة: تُدفع فدية فيُفرج عن المخطوف. وكانت ليبيا معمر القذافي رائدة في هذا المجال من خلال مؤسسة نجله سيف الإسلام التي يُعرف أنها دفعت أموالاً ضخمة للإفراج عن رهائن غربيين لدى جماعات مسلحة، خصوصاً «أبو سياف» في الفيليبين. لم يكن ذلك مجرد «عمل خير» بالطبع. فقد كان سيف، على الأرجح، يريد فتح صفحة جديدة بين بلاده والغرب بعد «لوكربي» و «يوتا» و «لا بيل»، ويراهن على أن يسعفه جهده هذا في تعبيد طريقه ليرث حكم والده. لكن الحقيقة أن ليبيا لم تكن وحدها من يدفع الفدية لإطلاق الرهائن، فقد فعلت ذلك دول أوروبية عدة. كانت بريطانيا والولايات المتحدة البلدين الوحيدين اللذين رفضا الانخراط في سياسة الفدية، وإن كانت واشنطن في أواخر عهد باراك أوباما تخلّت عن قيودها الصارمة في هذا المجال وسمحت بالاتصال بالخاطفين لتأمين الإفراج عن الرهائن.

وفي السنوات القليلة الماضية، وجدت قطر نفسها تلعب دوراً شبيهاً بدور «مؤسسة القذافي» الابن، إذ دفعت، وفق ما يتردد على نطاق واسع، أموالاً لجماعات سورية لتأمين الإفراج عن رهائن. ولعل حادثة راهبات معلولا هي الأشهر في هذا المجال، لكنها ليست الوحيدة. وقد تعرضت قطر آنذاك لمزاعم أن «عمل الخير» هذا الذي تقوم به يدعم في نهاية المطاف فرع «القاعدة» («النصرة») مالياً، بل ويشجعه على خطف مزيد من الرهائن، تماماً كما حصل مع فرع «القاعدة» في الساحل الأفريقي. وبالأمس، استرجعت قطر عدداً من مواطنيها كانوا محتجزين لدى جماعة يُفترض أنها شيعية في العراق، في إطار ما يُعرف بـ «صفقة البلدات الأربع» السورية. وبغض النظر عما إذا كانت هناك فعلاً بنود سرية في الصفقة تتضمن دفع أموال، إلا أن الخطر الذي تثيره هذه القضية أنها تعيد قضية «الإتجار بالرهائن» إلى المربع الأول الذي انطلقت منه، أي الجماعات الشيعية المرتبطة بإيران، كما حصل في لبنان في الثمانينات. صحيح أن جماعات عراقية مرتبطة بإيران مارست هذه التجارة في السنوات الماضية، كما حصل مع البريطانيين، إلا أن ذلك كان بمثابة «المتطفل» على تجارة يحتكرها «القاعدة». الخوف الآن أن تفتح قضية القطريين شهية الجماعات المرتبطة بإيران، كما فتحت قضية الرهائن الأوروبيين شهية «القاعدة» من قبل.

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