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هل سيأوي “الحازميون” إلى الساحل والصحراء بعد انهيار “الخلافة”؟/ محمد محمود ولد أبو المعالي

حين بسط تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية سيطرته سنة 2014 على أجزاء كبيرة من الأراضي السورية والعرقية، ودخل في خصومة تطورت إلى درجة الاقتتال مع تنظيم القاعدة، صنفه العديد من المراقبين كجيل جديد من “الجهاديين” أكثر راديكالية من جيل التأسيس (القاعدة)، لكن جيلا ثالثا برز إلى الوجود سريعا، حيث شهد التنظيم منذ يونيو عام 2014 تاريخ إعلان ميلاد “دولة الخلافة”، صراعا داخليا محموما، وصل في بعض الأحيان إلى حد تنفيذ إعدامات واعتقالات في عدد من عناصره وقادته بتهمة “الغلو والتطرف” والانتماء لتيار أشد راديكالية من المرجعية الفكرية للتنظيم، حيث ظهرت داخل صفوفه نزعة تطورت سريعا لتتبلور في شكل تيار عريض، توغل في هياكل التنظيم وقنوات اتخاذ القرار فيه، تبشر برؤية تدفع نحو مزيد من التشدد والتطرف، لدرجة وصلت حد تكفير قيادة تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية نفسه، ووصفها بالطاغوت والشرك، وعرف هذا التيار باسم “الحازميين” نسبة إلى شيخ سلفي سعودي يسمى أحمد بن عمر الحازمي، (معتقل حاليا في المملكة العربية السعودية)، وقد دخل منظرو هذا التيار في نقاشات وخصومات مع باقي منظري تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية، وفي مقدمتهم المفتي السابق للتنظيم، البحريني “تركي البنعلي” (قتل في مايو عام 2017)، والمتحدث السابق باسم التنظيم “أبو محمد العدناني” (قتل في آغسطس عام 2016) ، وقد انقسم أنصار تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية إلى تيارين، أحدهما يعرف باسم “الحازميين” والثاني يعرف باسم “البنعليين” (نسبة لتركي البنعلي)، وقد انحازت قيادة التنظيم ممثلة في “أبي بكر البغدادي” وكبار معاونيه، إلى التيار الثاني (البنعليين)، وشنت حملة اعتقالات وإعدامات استهدفت عناصر “الحازميين” في التنظيم بتهمة الغلو والتشدد والتكفير.
غير أن الملفت للانتباه هو أن أغلب معتنقي فكر تيار “الحازميين” وقادته، ينتمون لمنطقة المغرب العربي وشمال إفريقيا، مع وجود أنصار لهم في السودان والمشرق العربي، لذلك استهدفت أغلب الإعدامات التي نفذها تنظيم الدولة ضدهم، بعض التونسيين والجزائريين والمغاربة، ومن أبرز من تم إعدامهم من طرف تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية بتهمة الانتماء لتيار “الحازميين”، “أبو جعفر الحطاب التونسي” وهو قيادي سابق في تنظيم أنصار الشريعة بتونس، وكذلك “أبو مصعب التونسي” و”أبو أسيد المغربي”، و”أبو الحوراء الجزائري”، و”أبو عبد الله المغربي.”
ويرج كثير من المختصين أسباب انتشار النزعة “الحازمية” بين التونسيين أكثر من غيرهم، إلى أن منظر التيار “أحمد بن عمر الحازمي”، سبق وأن زار تونس أواخر عام 2011 حيث أقام فيها فترة، قابل خلالها عددا كبيرا من أنصار التيار السلفي الجهادي، وألقى العديد من المحاضرات والدروس والدورات العلمية، في المساجد والتجمعات، فتأثر به الكثير من الشباب واعتنقوا رؤيته الفكرية والعقدية.

عودة “الحازميين”
واليوم لا يماري أحد في أنه بعد الانهيار الوشيك “لدولة الخلافة” التي أقامها التنظيم في العراق وسوريا ـ على الأرض ـ وخروجه من المدن التي كانت تحت سيطرته، فإن التنظيم سيشهد تحولات جديدة وجذريته في مساره، أهمها عودة مئات المقاتلين من غير السوريين والعراقيين، إلى مواطنهم الأصلية، إما لتأسيس خلايا نائمة هناك انتظارا للحظة المناسبة، أو لاستئناف نشاطهم “الجهادي” بطريقة أخرى، وهذا يعني أن عشرات إن لم يكن المئات من أتباع “الحازميين” من التونسيين والجزائريين والليبيين والمغاربة والسودانيين، الذين كانوا يقاتلون أو يعيشون في مناطق سيطرة تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية بالمشرق العربي، سيعودون إلى بلدانهم، وليس مستبعدا أن تكون منطقة الصحراء الكبرى ومنطقة الساحل عموما، وجهتهم المفضلة ليتخذوا منها موئلا جديدا لهم، لإعادة البناء واستئناف النشاط، نظرا لكونها منطقة رخوة تغيب عنها في الغالب الأعم سلطة الدولة المركزية، وتتبع إقليميا لبلدان تتسم بهشاشة المنظومات الأمنية والدفاعية والإدارية.
ينضاف إلى ذلك أن بعض حملة الفكر الراديكالي الموغل في التكفيرية، والذي يعتنقه “الحازميون” موجودون في المنطقة منذ فترة، حيث يتقاطع الزعيم السابق لجماعة “بوكو حرام” والقائد الحالي لواحد من أكبر فصائلها “أبو بكر شيكاو” مع معتنقي هذا الفكر والمدافعين عنه، فقد كشفت الوثائق والمراسلات بين قيادة تنظيم القاعدة ببلاد المغرب الإسلامي وقيادة بوكو حرام خلال الفترة ماب ين 2006 و2011، عن اعتماد “أبو بكر شيكاو” على مراجع ومصنفات تنظر لهذا الفكر وتدافع عنه، مثل كتاب “المتممة” لعلي بن خضير، وكتاب “لا عذر بالجهل في الشرك الأكبر” لضياء الدين القدسي، وكتاب “الأفق المبين” لبشير عبد الله، وهي كلها مؤلفات توصف بأنها تنظير وتشريع لفكر أكثر راديكالية وتطرفا، وينتقدها معظم منظري الحركات الجهادية في العالم ويصفونها “بخرافات الخوارج” .
بل إن النواة الأولى لحملة هذا الفكر في منطقة الساحل قد ظهرت سنة 2003 في شمال نيجيريا عندما انشقت جماعة عن “محمد يوسف” مؤسس بوكو حرام بقيادة “الشيخ باب”، واعتزلت في بلدتي “كنما” و”غيدم” على الحدود مع النيجر، واشتبكت مع قوات الأم والجيش حينها، فيما اصطلح يطلق عليه محليا اسم “جهاد كنما”، كما ظهرت في الجزائر أفكار مماثلة خلال تسعينيات القرن الماضي، وسيطر أصحابها على قيادة الجماعة الإسلامية المسلحة (جمال زيتوني، وعنتر زوابري) قبل تفككها واختفائها.
كما أن المعلومات المتوفرة تشير إلى أن بعض الخارجين من مدينة سيرت في جنوب ليبيا بعد طرد تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية منها، على يد قوات البنيان المرصوص التابعة لحكومة الوفاق الليبية، يحملون نفس الفكر، وقد توغل بعضهم في الصحراء وبدأ ينشط فيها.
وهذا يعني من بين أمور كثيرة أن مواجهة قد تكون ساخنة أو باردة، متوقعة لا محالة بين الوافدين الجدد، والجماعات “الجهادية” الموجودة في المنطقة أصلا، والتي تدين بالولاء تنظيميا وفكريا، لتنظيم القاعدة، وترى في تنظيم الدولة وقيادته من “البنعليين” و”البغداديين” غلاة وتكفيريين، وتناصبهم الخصومة، فكيف سيكون موقفها لو دخل “الحازميون” المنطقة وأرادوا بسط نفوذهم ونشر دعوتهم في الصحراء والساحل.

الخلاف “التكفيري”
وتوعد أزمة الخلاف بين طرفي الصراع داخل تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية (الحازميين والبنعليين)، إلى إشكالية العذر بالجهل في قضايا التوحيد والشرك، فالحازمون يرون أن لا عذر لأحد بالجهل في مسائل التوحيد، سواء بلغته الحجة أم لم تبلغه، ولا عبرة بالنظر حينها في الشروط والموانع المتعلقة بالعذر بالجهل، وأن من لم يكفر مرتكب ناقض من نواقض الإسلام يتعلق بالتوحيد ولو جاهلا، فهو كافر، ومن لم يكفر الذي لا يكفره فهو أيضا كافر، في سلسلة تكفيرية متواصلة لا تنتهي، عملا بقاعدة “من لم يكفر الكافر فهو كافر”، ومن لم يكفر من لم يكفر الكافر فهو كافر.
أما التيار الثاني (البنعليين) المتمثل في قيادة التنظيم وفي مقمتهم “أبو بكر البغدادي”، و”تركي البنعلي” و”أبو محمد العدناني”، فيشاطرون الحازميين في القول بأنه لا عذر بالجهل في مسائل التوحيد والشرك، غير أنهم يتوقفون عن تكفير من أعذر بالجهل في تلك الأمور، وبالتالي يرون أن إطلاق قاعدة من لم يكفر الكافر يبقى مقيدا، وانطلاقا من هذا الطرح فقد كفرهم “الحازميون”، بسبب توقفهم عن تكفير من يعذر الجاهل في قضايا التوحيد والشرك.
كما أن “الحازميين” يكفرون قادة القاعدة وفي مقدمتهم أسامة بن لادن وأيمن الظواهري، وكذلك حركة طالبان، ويكفرون البغدادي لأنه لا يكفرهم، ويسمي “الحازميون” تنظيم الدولة الإسلامية باسم “دولة الأصنام في العراق والشام”، وقد ألفوا عددا من الكتب والرسائل والبيانات في هذا المجال من أشهرها: “القول الندي في كفر دولة البغدادي” لأبي معاذ السلفي، و”البغدادي الزنديق، له عذاب جهنم وله عذاب الحريق، ما لم يتب” و”بيان طاغوتية البغدادي”، و”سل الحسام على دولة الأصنام”، و”إعلان النكير على فرقة البنعلية الجهمية الحمير”.
كما ألفوا في تكفير أسامة بن لادن وأيمن الظواهري وأبو مصعب الزرقاوي، فمن أبرز مصنفاتهم في هذا المجال، “الكلام الجلي في بيان عقيدة أسامة ابن لادن القحطاني، و”الرد اليسير على شبهات الظواهري المكير”، و”بيان جهل أبي مصعب الزرقاوي بالعروة الوثقى”، بل إن منظريهم ألفوا في الرد على ابن تيمية وتكفيره وتبديعه، فألف “أبو معاذ الفاتح” رسالة مطولة تحت عنوان “كسر صنم بن تيمة الحراني”، ومن أبرز ما اتخذه مبررا لتكفيره أن ابن تيمية يميز بين كفر النوع وكفر المعين، واعتبرها بدعة جاء بها ابن تيمية، كما أنه يعذر من اجتهد وأخطأ في أصل الدين، كما يعذر من كفر متأولا، أو تلفظ بالكفر قبل قيام الحجة عليه، ويقبل بالخلاف في توحيد الله.

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