أرشيف صحفيموضوعات رئيسية

في موريتانيا يوفقون بين الجمل والسيارة … بين رئاسة بلدية وزعامة قبيلة

نواكشوط- الشيخ بكاي  – “تبرك” سيارة “الهيلوكس” مع الجمل أمام خيمة سيد أحمد ولد اجه التي تتوسط خيم البدو في الصحراء الموريتانية. ويبدو رئيس القبيلة، وهو أيضاً عمدة مدينة، أكثر ميلاً إلى الجمل من السيارة. لكنه يستخدم كلاً منهما في المهمة التي تناسبه، فالسيارة “مناسبة للمهمات العاجلة، بينما يختص الجمل بقطع المسالك الوعرة التي تقف السيارة عاجزة أمامها”.

يقضي سيد أحمد بعض الوقت في نواكشوط، ويقيم رسمياً في مدينته الصغيرة الواقعة على بعد ألف كيلومتر في الصحراء شرق العاصمة، إلا أن معظم الوقت و”أحلاه” في البادية مع قطعان الإبل والأغنام.

ترك ولد اجه المدرسة ليقود قبيلته “بعد رحيل الوالد”. وكانت القبيلة أحياء بدوية متنقلة، لكن بعضها استقر مثل “الحلة”.

و”الحلة” هي حي رئيس القبيلة، أي عاصمتها المتنقلة، ويوجد في “الحلة” عادة رئيس القبيلة وأعوانه المباشرون وحاشيته والبعض من أبناء عمه، وينبغي أن يوجد في خيمة الرئيس طبل متميز عن الطبول الأخرى يسمى “الطبل الكبير” وهو يرمز إلى القيادة.

ولا تكتمل بنية “الحلة” من دون فقيه على درجة كبيرة من العلم يشغل وظيفة القاضي، ويرشد الرئيس، إضافة إلى عدد من الفقهاء وحفاظ القرآن الذين يتولون شؤون التعليم وينبغي أيضاً وجود مطربين يروحون عن الأمير ويشاركون في الحرب بإنشاد القصائد الحماسية التي تبعث روح الشجاعة في نفوس رجال القبيلة. ولا تقوم “الحلة” أيضاً من دون وجود أسرة أو أكثر من “المعلمين” ويطلق هذا الأسم على “الحدادين” الذين يمتهنون أيضاً النجارة ويمارسون الصناعات الجلدية.

ويلعب “المعلم” دور مصنع الأسلحة، فهو الذي يمد “الجيش” بالبنادق والسيوف والذخيرة، ويعتمد البدو على “المعلم” في كل الاحتياجات المنزلية من أفرشة وأواني مطبخ. كما يصوغ أيضاً حلي النساء، وهو الذي يصنع السروج و”الهوادج” و”الرواحل” الراحلة توضع على الجمل ويركبها الرجال دون النساء المخصص لهن الهودج.

وعلى رغم استقرار “حلة” ولد اجه منذ الستينات، فإنه ظل مرتبطاً بالبادية وأهلها. وقال الرجل الذي يوشك على إكمال الخمسين ويعمل عمدة لمنطقة “الواحات” وسط موريتانيا لـ “الحياة”: “نحن في موريتانيا نفخر بانتمائنا للبادية التي هي أصلنا وملاذنا حينما تجور المدينة”. وزاد: “البادية عندنا لا تعني البدائية، فقد ظلت على الدوام مصدراً للعلم… وظلت لها مدارسها المتنقلة التي تعرف بالمحاظر وهي جامعات تعلم القرآن واللغة العربية ومعارف أخرى”.

وحين تأتي الأمطار وتخضر الأرض، تتحول القيادة إلى البادية حيث يقيم الرجل حياً متنقلاً يأخذ شكل “الحلة” القديم. وحين يمل أهل الحي من الترحال يعودون إلى المدينة. ويبقى “الرئيس – العمدة” متنقلاً بين أطراف “دولته”،

وعندما تسأل الرجل: كيف يوفق بين وظيفتي رئيس القبيلة المتنقل وعمدة المدينة المستقر، وبعبارة أخرى كيف يوفق بين “السيارة” و”الجمل”؟ يقول: “عليّ تفقد أهل البادية ورعاية شؤونهم، والاهتمام بما يخصني من الماشية في شكل دائم… اركب تارة السيارة وأركب الجمل في الأماكن الوعرة أو في حال تعطل السيارة. وأعود إلى البلدية التي هي محل اقامتي الدائم لأسير شؤونها”. ويضيف: “على مدى الشهور الخمسة الأخيرة وجدتني مضطراً للإقامة في البادية لإقناع البدو وسكان القرى باستغلال الأراضي الزراعية التي روتها مياه المطر”.

وشهدت المنطقة جفافاً حاداً خلال السنوات الأخيرة جعل أهلها يواجهون مصاعب جمة. وقال ولد اجه: “كان وجودي بينهم ضرورياً لتشجيعهم على الصبر على العمل في الزراعة ولأشاركهم الظروف الصعبة”. ويقول الفلاحون الريفيون إن ولد اجه تعهد خلال مرحلة البذر كل ما يخص المزارعين من الاستهلاكات الغذائية، كما قدم لهم البذور. وقال أحدهم لـ “الحياة”: “لولاه لما زرعنا الأرض، لأنه لم يكن في أيدينا قوت اليوم حينما هطلت الأمطار”.

ويعتبر ولد اجه أنه على رغم أنه لا بد لكل مجموعة قبلية من الابقاء على نظامها الخاص “كي تتمكن من حل مشاكلها”، إلا أن “التعاطي الذكي مع المعطيات الجديدة والابتعاد عن الجمود أمر ضروري”. وقال: “نشأت في فترة كان لها نظامها الخاص من ناحية أساليب القيادة، لكن تسلمي مسؤولية القبيلة كان في بداية منعطف بين النظام القبلي البحت ونظام الدولة الحديث. وقد كنت شاباً اضطرني الحرص على الحفاظ على مكانة أسرتي وعشيرتي لترك المدرسة”، ومع هذا “فطنت منذ البداية إلى ان التاريخ يتطور إلى أمام، فتطورت معه. ولم أمارس الاسلوب القديم. وخاطبت الناس بلغة العصر، ولذا أدخلت التعليم العصري منذ توليت المسؤولية وظلت للحلة مدرستها الحديثة التي ترحل معها أينما رحلت وتعلم الفرنسية إضافة إلى العربية”.

9 مايو 1998 جريدة الحياة اللندنية

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338 رأي على “في موريتانيا يوفقون بين الجمل والسيارة … بين رئاسة بلدية وزعامة قبيلة”

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